BATHYMETRIC MAPPING – NATMAP’S UNFINISHED PROGRAM

 

Prepared by Paul Wise, February - October 2014

Updated by Charlie Watson, June 2015; further updates 2020

 

 

Introduction

When first envisaged, National Mapping’s Bathymetric Mapping program was planned to run for some 10 years at a projected cost of $18 million. Approved by Cabinet Decision 206 of 11 March 1970, the final cost of the work completed was $12,739,700 (in 1970 Dollars refer Annexure G). Commenced in 1971, by 1987 after 17 years of steady progress within annually reduced budgets, it was thought that at the current level of funding the bathymetric mapping program could have been completed within five years. However, it was not to be!

 

The administrative arrangements associated with the formation of the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group within the Department of Administrative Services in 1987, transferred the Bathymetric Mapping function from National Mapping to the Royal Australian Navy's Hydrographic Service as of 1 July 1988. At that time, only 76% of the bathymetric survey program had been completed and 60% of the planned 279, 1:250,000 scale bathymetric map sheets had been published,

 

Former Natmap Senior Surveyor Bathymetry, Bruce Willington, recalled that after the Bathymetric Mapping program was moved to the Navy there was one last survey season in the Great Barrier Reef. Only Swain Reefs, the northern Great Barrier Reef, Archipelago of the Recherche and an area off the Arnhem Land Coast was then left in the bathymetric survey program. The latter two areas, however, were considered to be too dangerous for the MV Cape Pillar to survey, without extensive small boat assistance. The decision by the Department of Transport to sell the MV Cape Pillar and without a suitable replacement available at short notice, the survey program had to be curtailed. The planned survey work was thus only 90% completed.

With the ex-Natmap bathymetry group’s own dedicated draughting resources in the Navy, however, the cartography was able to be accelerated completing 26 bathymetric map compilations in one year alone. By 1991, it was reported that 75% of the bathymetric map publication program was complete. After this date no map publication statistics are available but information indicates that 81% of the planned bathymetric maps were finally published. Even though the bathymetric mapping program was not completed it was not for want of commitment by those directly involved who were Natmappers in the first instance. This paper therefore attempts to summarise the completed Bathymetric Mapping program.

 

Why Bathymetric Mapping in Natmap?

When exploration began to show that resource-rich regions extended beyond the Australian landmass, the need to know what was below our neighboring off-shore waters became an initial imperative. Any offshore development of oil and gas in the quest to make Australia self-sufficient, required bathymetric maps.

 

Australia had participated in the 1958 United Nations First Conference on the Law of the Sea, in Geneva. This Conference as part of its work, produced the Convention on the Continental Shelf, which Australia ratified. The first article of this Convention defined the continental shelf as follows :

 

For the purpose of these articles, the term continental shelf is used as referring (a) to the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas adjacent to the coast but outside the area of the territorial sea, to a depth of 200 meters or, beyond that limit, to where the depth of superjacent waters admits of the exploitation of the natural resources of the said areas; (b) to the seabed and subsoil of similar areas adjacent to the coasts of islands.

 

This conference then led to the Conventions on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone and on the Continental Shelf. Australia became a signatory to these Conventions in 1963. In so doing, Australia undertook to learn as much as possible about the nature and extent of its own continental shelf. This knowledge was required so that this region could be delineated and any exploitation adequately controlled. The extent of the continental shelf around Australia overlaid with the bathymetric map sheet index is shown at Figure 1.

 

 

Figure 1 : The extent of the Continental Shelf around Australia, as seen from space, overlaid with the bathymetric map sheet index. The 200 metre isobath as per the 1958 Convention is represented by the black dotted line and the approximate limit of the Continental Shelf under the 1982 Convention is represented by the solid red line.

 

As the major client for the bathymetric maps was the then Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR), bathymetric mapping was considered a civil program (at this time BMR also had divisional status alongside Nat Map within the Department of National Development. For this reason, responsibility for the program was given to the Division of National Mapping. The then Naval Hydrographic Service, as a defence agency could not guarantee the continuity of effort required to complete such a large survey and mapping program. In addition, at the time the Hydrographer’s resources could scarcely manage the existing demand for safe navigation lanes required by the increasing number of very large bulk ore carriers then transiting Australian shipping routes.

 

Pragmatically the Department of Shipping and Transport also had interests at that time in coastal maritime operations. With changing lighthouse re-supply logistics, as more automated lights were commissioned, the Department’s Navaids support and maintenance vessels had spare capacity. These vessels could not only operate to the limit of the continental shelf, their operations unlike those of the Navy were managed to maximise time at sea. It was thus seen as indefensible that the Navy was solely capable of bathymetric surveying and mapping.

 

What is Bathymetric Surveying and Mapping?

Bathymetry is the measurement of the depth of large bodies of water. In a surveying sense, bathymetry is not only measuring the depth of water at a location but also fixing, by co-ordinates such as latitude and longitude, the position of that location. A bathymetric map then portrays these positions and depths as contours of the sea floor or isobaths. In addition, any features such as islands, reefs and cays which break the surface of the sea are also depicted.

 

The traditional hydrographic chart does not depict the topographic relief of the area. It is designed to portray matters relating to navigation and provide a plot sheet on which the navigator can plan his route and plot his progress. Hydrographic surveys place emphasis on examining an area to ensure that no reefs, shoals or pinnacles exist which may constitute a hazard to shipping or, where these do exist, to show their relationship to landmarks or navigation aids. The vertical datum to which depths are reduced is usually related to the level of the lowest tide expected in the area. In open waters, deeper than the draught of vessels likely to sail there, only a general indication of water depth is usually shown.

 

When the bathymetric mapping program was established no map specifications for a bathymetric map existed. In the first years of the program, the map specifications had to be developed in parallel with operations. The 1:250,000 scale was adopted to maintain continuity with the similar land-based topographic series. Printing colours were restricted to brown for the land and blue with layer tints for the offshore elements. The isobath interval originally adopted was 20 meters, but from 1977 this was reduced to 10 meters. Although the continental shelf notionally extended to the 200 metre isobath, the bathymetric survey throughout was taken to the 300 metre isobath. This procedure ensured that the ship had passed the edge of the continental shelf and not mistaken a depression in the shelf for its edge.

 

The bathymetric map carried an important Caution Note to the effect, as outlined above, that it was not produced for navigation purposes as, unlike hydrographic charting, no effort was made to indicate possible hazards to shipping or depict navigational information, nor were the depths related to the type of datum used for hydrographic charts.

 

The choice of the 1:250,000 scale also permitted composite topographic/bathymetric maps to be made along the coastline as required. Nineteen such composite map sheets are known to have been printed and they are listed in Table 1 below (Knight, 2014).

 

Table 1

List of known composite (topographic/bathymetric)

1:250,000 scale map sheets by map number and name

SF56-13

Rockhampton

SG49-08

Shark Bay

SG56-02

Bundaberg

SH52-14

Eucla

SH52-15

Coompana

SH52-16

Nullarbor

SH53-13

Fowler

SI50-08

Newdegate

SI50-12

Bremer Bay

SI51-03

Balladonia

SI51-04

Culver

SI52-01

Burnabbie

SI52-02

Noonaera

SI53-01

Nuyts

SJ54-02

Naracoorte

SJ54-11

Portland

SJ54-12

Colac

SJ55-07

Bairnsdale

SJ55-11

Sale

 

Bathymetric Surveying

The bathymetric survey program necessitated two different, albeit similar methodologies. One for operating in deep off-shore waters, the other for shallow waters or waters where marine features could endanger a vessel. In deep open water a large vessel could be used with the endurance to stay at sea for long periods and so maximise survey time as well as to carry the necessary crew and equipment. This equipment not only included that for accurate on-line navigation but also for accurate position fixing out of the sight of land as well as that for water depth measurement. In shallower water a smaller more manoeuvrable vessel was required where endurance and capacity was less of an issue. The Department of Transport Navaids vessel, the MV Cape Pillar mostly fulfilled the role in off-shore waters while various vessels were chartered for the in-shore role. A list of the known vessels used, when and where is at Annexure D (more about the vessels used during the bathymetric mapping program can be found via this link). An indicative arrangement of the then equipment used in off-shore bathymetric surveying is shown in Figure 2.

 

 

Figure 2 : An indicative arrangement of the then equipment used in off-shore bathymetric surveying. In-shore bathymetric surveys used a less complex selection of equipment.

 

It should be noted that in the first few years of the bathymetric survey program, as Natmap had little to no knowledge in the field, contracts for data supply were let. These contracts not only accelerated the program’s initial acquisition of data but also let Natmap see how it was done. Details of the five contracts let for bathymetric data supply are in Table 2 below. The initial tender specifications were developed under the guidance of Royal Australian Navy Hydrographer, Commander Edward Ronald Ron Whitmore RAN, who had retired as Hydrographer RAN in March 1970. 

 

Table 2

Details of five Contracts let by National Mapping for bathymetric data supply

Contract

Contractor

Surveyor-in Charge

Vessel(s)

1

Australian Maritime Services

Commodore Tony Cooper RAN (Rtd)

MV Coralita and MV Murphy Star

2

Australian Hydrographic Services

Commander Hugh Vaughan RN (Rtd)

HV Ataluma

3

Engineering Surveys Oceanographic

Commander Rae Schofield RAN (Rtd)

MV Manly Cove

4

Australian Hydrographic Services

Commander Hugh Vaughan RN (Rtd)

HV Ataluma then MV Bluff Creek

5

Australian Hydrographic Services

Commander Hugh Vaughan RN (Rtd)

MV Bluff Creek

                 

The experience gained from observing these contractors was used to acquire the necessary instrumentation for Nat Map to equip and man future charter vessels to undertake the survey work itself. Len Turner and later Peter O’Donnell were behind much of this early development (McLean, 2014).  

 

In order to depict the continental shelf in sufficient detail for the 1:250,000 scale bathymetric maps, lines of echosounder depths were usually spaced 1500 or 3000 meters apart depending on the nature of the seabed topography. In areas of complex seabed topography special patterns were created to obtain sufficient echosounder depths to adequately indicate the relief of the area on the published map.  In the Great Barrier Reef lines were spaced at 2000m.

 

During the survey, the positioning and uncorrected echosounder depth data were plotted continuously as well as being recorded in a log book. Refer to Figures 4 and 5 below and Annexures B and C. In this way the pre­determined lines of echosounder depths were maintained, positioning data checked and areas of seabed relief requiring further echosounding brought to notice whilst in the area. The plot sheet was then used to provide a base from which the manuscript map was drawn at a scale of 1:150,000. The map showed each fixed position, usually at approximately 1000 meter spacings along the lines of echosoundings, and the echosounder depth data corrected to mean sea level from which the contours were interpolated.

 

An overview of the bathymetric survey task is provided by these Sounding Instructions produced by Natmap in 1978.

 

 

Figure 3 : MV Coralita on bathymetric work for National Mapping.

 

 

Figure 4 : September 1971 aboard the Australian Maritime Services’ MV Coralita. Contractor Tim Archer with the plot of positioning and uncorrected echosounder depth data and log book. The echosounder chart recorder (left) and RAYDIST positioning equipment (right) can be seen in the background.

 

 

Figure 5 : Section of a plot chart showing positioning and uncorrected echosounder depth data for both in-shore and off-shore surveys along with the location of the on-shore Decca Hi-Fix installation at Cape Cuvier.

 

Echosounder :  The common piece of equipment used in all bathymetric surveys was the echosounder. The echosounder measured the depth of water by timing an electronic pulse reflected off the seabed and recording this either as a continuous trace on chart paper or later, by digital display. Pulses were transmitted at frequencies around 30kHz and 210kHz depending on the make of echosounder. The lower frequency was more efficient in deeper water and the high frequency was better in shallow water. To achieve survey accuracy, the equipment was carefully calibrated and checked at frequent intervals by measuring echosounder depths to a bar lowered from the vessel to known depths. Later a disk check or for deep water an Expendable Bathythermograph was used to measure a profile of water temperature from which a mean velocity of sound in water was calculated. In Australian waters the speed of sound in water ranges from 1526 metres per second in the south of Tasmania to 1540 metres per second in the northern tropics. These speeds are about three times faster than the speed of sound in air. A sample of an echosounder trace or echogram is shown at Figure 6.

 

As necessary echosounder depths were corrected for any tidal variations from the selected datum, before being finally plotted on the map manuscript.

 

 

Figure 6 : Sample of an echosounder trace or echogram.

 

As explained above, water depth was of no value if its location was not accurately known. The position was recorded at two minute intervals during echosounding operations. Additional depths were added by interpolation depending on the nature of the seabed.

 

Initially position fixing from systems like Decca HiFix or RAYDIST, was used. Such radio positioning equipment relied on the phase comparison of signals transmitted from known stations on shore. Depending on the location of the survey and shore terrain, two or three transmitting stations were established to cover the survey area and provide the signals for suitable fixes. One bathymetric survey off the New South Wales central coast during November 1974 used only basic triangulation to fix the positions of echosoundings. Three observers with theodolites at locations with known co-ordinates on-shore, simultaneously read the horizontal angle to a light on the MV Cape Pillar (see Figure 7) at each sounding location. The angles were already referenced to a known azimuth and basic trigonometry established the ship’s position. The procedure was slow in that the ship was stopped while the angles were read and as the ship moved further off-shore the light could only be observed at night. Mick Skinner explains this work in a letter to his son Mark which can be read via this link.

 

Satellite Doppler Positioning :  Satellite Doppler positioning, an early form of GPS (Global Positioning Systems), really impacted bathymetric survey position fixing. The then Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS) provided approximate geographical coordinates of the ship's position and an accurate estimate of the course and speed maintained throughout the period between the fixes. The ship’s position at any instant between satellite fixes corrected to the Australian Geodetic Datum could then be computed. Satellite Doppler fixes in conjunction with other sophisticated equipment freed the bathymetric survey from the need to position and operate shore based transmitting equipment for position fixing.

 

Sonar Doppler Positioning : The accuracy of a satellite fix at sea was dependent on a number of factors the most critical being the vessel’s course and speed used in the computation. A one knot error in speed produced an error in position of as much as 500 meters while a one degree error in heading could mean a 50 metre shift off course. As the then satellite constellation could only provide an accurate fix once every few hours such errors had to be minimised. Course and speed data, when derived from gyrocompass and sonar Doppler, indicated positional accuracies of around ±75 meters could be achieved and while adequate for bathymetric mapping at 1:250,000 scale, it was insufficient for detailed hydrographic survey.

 

 

Figure  7 : Department of Shipping and Transport Navaids vessel, the MV Cape Pillar, used by National Mapping for the majority of the off-shore bathymetric surveys.

 

A marine gyrocompass used an electrically powered, fast-spinning gyroscope wheel to maintain an orientation to True North and is unaffected by external magnetic fields such as those created by ferrous metals in a ship's hull. The gyrocompass error was of the order of ± 0.5°.

 

A sonar Doppler system consisted basically of an electronics console with display panel and a hull mounted transducer array (simplistically a transducer converted electric impulses to sound waves). A signal was transmitted through the water in a 3° beam from each of four transducers set at 30° to the vertical towards the fore, aft, port and starboard of the vessel respectively. A portion of the signal was returned from the seabed and the effect of pitch and roll was cancelled by comparing the fore received signal with the aft and the port received signal with the starboard. The sonar system electronics then computed the velocity in each component and displayed the velocity and cumulative distance traveled along and across the longitudinal axis of the vessel. The addition of a synchro-output from the gyrocompass enabled the display to be related to a desired heading or, in an alternative mode, in respect of true north.

 

The sonar Doppler equipment could operate in water depths of 200-300 meters. At greater depths the sonar signal could be erroneously reflected off a moving sub-surface water layer. Generally the sonar Doppler provided results accurate to ±2-3 meters.

 

With adequate calibration and the adjusting of observed positions against satellite fixes as required, the total system produced positioning data with an average error of less than ±100 meters. Photographs of typical satellite and sonar Doppler equipment are at Annexure B.

 

Global Positioning System :  When GPS started to become available a Magnavox MX1107 GPS/Transit receiver was purchased. GPS positions, however, were only available for part of the day. To increase the arability of GPS coverage an atomic clock was thus interfaced to the MX1107. As the height above sea level was fixed at the antenna height and time was now known accurately, it was possible to obtain GPS fixes from only two satellites instead of the four usually required. Production was also significantly increased using GPS, as the ship could now cruise at around 12 knots instead of at the previous limit of 10.5 knots.

 

HIFIX 6 :  The Decca HiFix 6 system was used mainly in the Great Barrier Reef region. HiFix6 was a hyperbolic system using a chain of three transmitters, one as master and two as slaves. As with most such systems the operating principle was that the transmitters radiated a carrier phase locked to an accurate source, and the receiver (on the ship) measured the difference in phase between the signals received from the three transmitters. The phase differences produced a series of intersecting hyperboles called a lattice. By establishing the ship’s location along a hyperbola from each pattern, position was fixed. The diagram at Figure 8 shows a common arrangement of the HiFix 6 on a section of coastline. A Master or A station with B and C stations as Slaves generate the lattice. Accurate fixes required that the three shore stations be located at known survey points.

 

 

Figure 8 : Common survey arrangement of a HiFix 6 with a Master or A station and B and C stations as Slaves.

 

Points of zero phase difference were referred to as lanes. It was not necessary to rely on these however, since the receiver could measure phase differences at points in between lanes. The maximum resolution of the system was expressed as the smallest distance within a lane that could be measured and was limited by a number of factors. In the case of HiFix 6 the maximum resolution of the system was given as 0.01 lane, which at an operating frequency of 1905kHz was 1.6 meters. Since the distance between hyperbolae and hence lanes increased with distance away from the transmitters, the accuracy of the system was reduced in proportion. The operator would have to take this into account when a fix was obtained. The velocity of propagation of the signal was taken as 2,999,650 kilometres per second. The broadcast frequency of 1905kHz gave a wavelength of 157.2966 meters and a baseline lane width of 78.65 meters. Baselines used in the Great Barrier Reef ranged up to 90 kilometers and generally had a base angle of about 150 degrees at the Master station. This arrangement was necessarily dictated by the shape of the coastline and resulted in considerable lane expansion at the edges of the coverage area. The resultant accuracy was considered to be better than 20 metres. HiFix 6 was vulnerable to lane slip, where the whole number of lanes may be incorrect by one or two increments, and constant monitoring of position was necessary against known positions e.g. Miniranger positions, GPS or marker beacons. 

 

 

Figure 9 : HiFix 6 installation.

 

The HiFix 6 transmitters used a 100 foot mast (Figure 9 refers) and required a steady power source and constant monitoring for stability of the transmission signal. Two men thus camped at each transmitter and in addition to monitoring the HiFix equipment could also position Miniranger transponders, as required.

 

Miniranger III : Miniranger was a product of the Motorola Corporation and went through many development stages as Miniranger I/II/III. It operated in the C-Band microwave region at around 5.5GHz, with a transmitter power of 400 watts. The system worked by measuring the time of flight of short (0.3 microseconds) pulses of radio energy. A fix was obtained by comparing the distance measurement or range obtained from 2 or more shore stations. Whilst the accuracy was good, as with all microwave systems the Miniranger was strictly limited to line of sight operation. The range could be extended by mounting the shore stations on high ground and/or tall structures, and the ship-borne antenna at the top of the mast. A rotating antenna was an add-on which improved range considerably, mainly as it was omni directional and did not suffer from blind spots especially when the ship was turning. The accuracy of the system was better than 3 meters with a maximum range of about 120 kilometres. Miniranger transponders were powered by 24 volts, supplied by two 12 volt batteries. As the batteries only lasted for two to three days, to reduce the need for battery changes solar panels and wind generators were used when possible. Theft of these items, however, was a problem on occasions.

 

Data Acquisition System : Most of the Data Acquisition Systems used were developed in-house. Eventually all navigation systems were combined with either Atlas Deso 10 or 20 or Elac echo sounders and at various times HP 1000, HP 21 MX, HP 85, Sanyo and Compaq PC computers. A typical Data Acquisition System is shown in schematic form in Annexure F.

 

Tidal Observations : Tidal observations were made using bottom mounted gauges such as NBA Controls model DNT1/2, Aanderra model WLRS5, Microsystems model TG12A and Endeco model SSM1O32. The Endeco was a fully digital model and the readout could be processed on a PC or HP 85 to obtain the resulting depths in the field. The data was also transferred direct to the automated data processing computer.

Analysis of tidal data was done on a HP A900 computer using a tidal program developed by the Canadian Hydrographic Service. Cotidal charts were prepared by hand as required. A Cotidal chart showed contours of sea height ratios and time differences between a number of tidal stations. It was used to convert predictions or observations made at one point to any other point. 

Diving Operations : To place tidegauges on the ocean floor in shallow waters (less than 20 meters) divers were used to select a suitable site, accurately record the depth of the site and ensure that the gauge was level and well secured. They were also used to ensure that the gauge was not snagged before retrieval and assisted in searching for a lost or damaged gauge. Initially, crew of the MV Cape Pillar performed these tasks, however, with crew cutbacks and operations commencing in the Great Barrier Reef Natmap trained its own squad of volunteer divers for this purpose.  

 

Co-operative Activities including Opportune Data Collection whilst at Sea

Close liaison was maintained with the Hydrographer, Royal Australian Navy, to avoid duplication of effort and ensure that the bathymetric surveys assisted the hydrographic charting program as much as possible.

 

In addition, during the course of the bathymetric survey operations other scientific data were routinely collected. The acquisition of these data was with the proviso that its collection did not interfere with or impact fundamental bathymetric operations. These additional data sets included :

 

.        Continuous sea surface temperature for the CSIRO Division of Fisheries;

.        Six hourly weather reports telegraphed to the Bureau of Meteorology from its on-board equipment;

.        Bathythermograph records transmitted to the National Oceanographic Data Base;

.        Hydrographic Notes submitted to the Hydrographic Office reporting new shoals discovered and additional data about existing shoals;

.        All tidal observations submitted to the Hydrographic Office and the National Tidal Facility at Flinders University in Adelaide;

.        All Reports of Survey (compiled at the end of each project) together with completed manuscripts were submitted to the Hydrographic Office;

.        Tide gauge calibrations for Harbor Authorities were completed when time was available, (usually at crew change time);

.        Lighthouse positions fixed by satellite observations (MX1501) on an opportunity basis (the position of most lighthouses had never been properly surveyed);

.        Magnetometer observations using equipment provided by the Bureau of Mineral Resources to provide detailed magnetic anomaly data;

.        Seabed profiles used by the Bureau of Mineral Resources to study the micro-  geomorphology of the seabed; and

.        Echosounder charts used by the Division of Fisheries of the Department of Primary Industry to extract information on the nature of the seabed and fish distribution to assist in trawling operations.

 

 

Figure  10 : TSMV Febrina on bathymetric survey operations for National Mapping.

 

Incidents and Accidents

The bathymetric surveys were truly of unchartered waters. Survey vessels became grounded near Vashon Head (Cobourg Peninsular NT), Truant Island (near Gove) and Elphingstone Rock (Melville Island). The most serious incident however, occurred in 1984. While on survey to the east of the Archipelago of the Recherche, southern Western Australia, the MV Cape Pillar struck an uncharted rock pinnacle and only the quick actions of the crew saved it from sinking. More detail can be found via this link.

 

More tragic was the death of Natmapper John Ellis Wright (1953-1980) in an innocuous personal accident that occurred while he was on land-based bathymetric survey duties at Lucinda NQ.

 

A list of personnel who worked on the bathymetric program can be found at Annexure A.

 

Bathymetric Mapping and Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

Unmanned submersibles and Side-scan Sonar today provide information on the sea-bed never previously available, and certainly in much greater detail than the bathymetric maps of the 1970s-80s. Refer to Annexure E for a detailed bathymetric map sheet index showing work completed. Nevertheless, Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) today provides for jurisdiction over a marine area of some 10 million square kilometers and the basis of this zone can be traced back to data from the bathymetric mapping program (by comparison the Australian landmass is only 7.7M sq.km).

 

Acknowledgements

The assistance of Bruce Willington, Laurie McLean, Con Veenstra, Charlie Watson, Simon Cowling and John Knight in the preparation of this paper is greatly appreciated.

 

 

Annexures

 

A.      Bathymetric Program Personnel

B.      Photographs of typical satellite and sonar Doppler equipment

C.      Further photographs of operations

D.     Bathymetric Activity by Financial Year

E.      Publication Status - Bathymetric Map Sheets

F.      Schematic Diagram of Data Acquisition on GBR Project

G.     Summary of Expenditure and Progress on Bathymetric Program

 

 

References

 

Denoon, Donald John Noble (2009), The Hundred Fathers of the Torres Strait Treaty, Talk delivered as part of RG Neale Lecture Series at the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 5 November 2009, text courtesy Con Veenstra.

 

Department of Resources and Energy (1987), Annual Report, Australian Government Publishing Service.

 

Division of National Mapping (1987), Bathymetric Survey Report : Cape Pillar Surveys : No. 1 of 1987, 23 November 1986 to 12 May 1987.

 

Division of National Mapping (1988), Bathymetric Survey Report : Great Barrier Reef Survey : No. 2 of 1988, TSMV Febrina, 18 July to 3 November 1988.

 

Lines, John Dunstan (1992), Australia on Paper: The Story of Australian Mapping, Fortune Publications, Box Hill, Victoria, ISBN 0646097695.

 

Knight, John (2014), Personal Communication, March 2014.

 

McLean, Laurie (2014), Len Turner (1932-2002): Nat Map’ s Consistent Quiet Achiever, XNATMAP website article.

 

NATMAP (1972 - 1986), Statement of Activities, Division of National Mapping, as published annually between 1 July 1972 and 30 June 1986.

 

O’Donnell, Peter (1982), Bathymetry – The Decade Ahead, Technical Papers, Australian Congress of Survey and Mapping, Canberra 1982, pp. 79-83.

 

O’Donnell, Peter (2014), Personal Communication, April 2014.

 

Turner, Leonard George (1974), Mapping Australia's Continental Shelf, Technical Papers, Australian Survey Congress, Melbourne, February 1974, pp. 128-135.

 

Turner, LG and Mitchell, HL (1977), Satellite Imagery and its Applications to Offshore Mapping in Australia, Technical Papers, Australian Survey Congress, Darwin, May 1977, pp. 89-97.

 

Veenstra, Con (1984), Mapping the Australian Continental Shelf, Technical Papers of the 12th Conference of the International Cartographic Association, Perth, August, 1984, Vol. 1, pp. 411-421.

 

Willington, Bruce (2014), Personal Communication, July 2014.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annexure A

 

Bathymetric Program Personnel

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dave

 Abreu

Mark

 Hankensen

Bob

 Scott

Phil

 Allen

T

 Henshaw

Doug

 Sharp

Fulvio

 Bagliani

Steve

 Hodgkin

F

 Sheilman

Gordon

 Baker

Gavin

 Holmes

Reg

 Sheridan

Steve

 Bartlett

Gordon

 Homes

All

 Simonkevicious

Steve

 Bennett

Anthony

 Hunter

Dave

 Skinner

Frank

 Blanchfield

Dave

 Hunter

Mick

 Skinner

Joe

 Blicharz

Vance

 Inghram

Barry

 Sloane

Grant

 Boyes

Bill

 Jeffery

Rod

 Small

Chris

 Boyldew

Peter

 Kaczerepa

John

 Sparrow

Graham

 Brassil

F

 Kidman

Mick

 Spellacy

John

 Bray

Ron

 Knight

Geoff

 Starkey

Ken

 Brown

Jack

 Lamb

Rod

 Streeter

Bob

 Bryant

Maris

 Legzde

John

 Sutton

Vicky

 Charmen

Tony

 Lewis

Peter

 Talty

Jim

 Clarke

Gerry

 Liengme

Matthew

 Taylor

Col

 Cochran

Richard

 Littlejohn

Noel

 Templeman

John

 Corcoran

Margaret

 Lucas

Noel

 Ticehurst

Simon

 Cowling

John

 Manning

Len

 Turner

Alan

 Deck

Paul

 McCormack

Bob

 Twilley

Phill

 Doolan

Lyn

 McDonald

Con

 Veenstra

Michael

 Dowhy

Mark

 McMahon

Klaus

 Voigt

Martin

 Drury

Tiernan

 McNamara

Mark

 Vilima

Michael

 Dwyer

Tom

 Meuller

Peter

 Walkley

Jack

 Edmonstone

Harvey

 Mitchell

Charlie

 Watson

Mark

 Elphick

Peter

 Mortimer

John

 Wenborn

Oscan

 Ertok

Brian

 Murphy

Don

 Wilcox

Brad

 Eyre

Ian

 Norton

George

 Williams

Chris

 Fergusson

Barry

 Obst

Bruce

 Willington

Danny

 Gardner

Peter

 O'Donnell

Joe

 Winter

Brian

 Gibson

Greg

 Pepper

Richard

 Witrzens

Ted

 Graham

Wayne

 Petschack

Phil

 Woodward

Don

 Gray

Allan

 Pilley

Adrian

 Wright

Dave

 Griffin

Jack

 Pittar

Barry

 Wright

Steve

 Hadobas

Richard

 Proudfoot

John

 Wright

Steve

 Hall

Andy

 Rogers

Steve

 Yates

 


                                                                                                       Annexure B

 

Photographs of typical satellite and sonar Doppler Equipment

 

 

 

 

Annexure C

 

Further photographs of the equipment

 

September 1971 aboard the Australian Maritime Services’ MV Coralita. Then contractor and later Natmapper John Sutton monitoring the RAYDIST positioning equipment.

September 1971 aboard the Australian Maritime Services’ MV Coralita. Contractor Robert Crooks with the PDP 8L mini-computer.

Undated aboard the Dept. of Shipping and Transport Navaids vessel, the MV Cape Pillar. Natmap’s Mick Skinner (holding torch) with probably the Decca Hi-Fix representative and Natmap’s Con Veenstra.

Undated aboard the Dept. of Shipping and Transport Navaids vessel, the MV Cape Pillar. Computer and positioning equipment.

 


Annexure D

 

BATHYMETRIC MAPPING ACTIVITY BY FINANCIAL YEAR

Financial

Year

Survey

Vessel(s)

Region(s)

Na[C1] utical Miles

of Soundings

1971/72

MV Coralita & MV Murphy Star

Southern Queensland

 

1971/72

HV Ataluma

New South Wales

8,000

1972/73

MV Cape Pillar

Timor Sea

 

1972/73

MV Manly Cove

Port Hedland

11,600

1973/74

HV Ataluma then MV Bluff Creek

Broome

 

1973/74

MV Cape Pillar

Timor Sea

20,120

1974/75

MV Cape Pillar

Ashmore Reef, Mellish Reef and NSW coast

 

1974/75

MV Bluff Creek

Cape Londonderry

17,305

1975/76

MV Cape Pillar

Gulf of Carpentaria

 

1975/76

MV Cape Don

Bunbury

 

1975/76

DT Burrowaree

Tasmania East Coast

25,900

1976/77

MV Cape Pillar

Gulf of Carpentaria and Timor Sea

 

1976/77

MV Cape Don

Bremer and Shark Bays

 

1976/77

MV Lumen

Torres Strait

29,030

1977/78

MV Cape Pillar

Timor Sea

 

1977/78

MV Cape Don

Bremer and Shark Bays

 

1977/78

MV Candela

Spencer Gulf

26,560

1978/79

MV Cape Pillar

Barrow Is. - Darwin

 

1978/79

MV Cape Don

Shark Bay

21,780

1979/80

MV Cape Pillar

Timor Sea then Heard and McDonald Islands

 

1979/80

RV Kalinda & other charters

Great Barrier Reef

11,790

1980/81

MV Cape Pillar

North-west Shelf

 

1980/81

MV Cape Pillar

Coral Sea

 

1980/81

RV Kalinda & other charters

Great Barrier Reef

26,970

1981/82

MV Cape Pillar

Arafura and Coral Seas, West coast of Tasmania and McDonald Is

 

1981/82

TSMV Febrina

Ingham – Townsville

21,450

1982/83

MV Cape Pillar

Tasmania and Great Australian Bight

28,212

1982/83

TSMV Febrina

Townsville

3,450

1983/84

MV Cape Pillar

Tasmania and Great Australian Bight

22,239

1983/84

TSMV Febrina

Townsville – Bowen

3,921

1984/85

MV Cape Pillar

Bass Strait

25,141

1984/85

TSMV Febrina

Townsville - Bowen

1,683

1985/86

MV Cape Pillar

Arafura Sea

28,050

1985/86

TSMV Febrina

Cairns - Bowen

1,700

1986/87

MV Cape Pillar (#)

Gulf of Carpentaria, Joseph Bonaparte Bay, Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs

29,473

1986/87

TSMV Febrina

Great Barrier Reef

3,070

1987/88

MV Cape Pillar

Gulf of Carpentaria and Melville Is

24,739

1987/88

TSMV Febrina

Great Barrier Reef

2,914

1988/89

MV Cape Pillar

Gulf of Carpentaria and Coral Sea

13,912

1988/89

TSMV Febrina (#)

Great Barrier Reef

2,550

1989/90

TSMV Febrina

Great Barrier Reef

1,975

Total

 

 

413,471

 

Bathymetric Surveying Program Summary

 

 

Sheets Surveyed

238

 

 

Sheets part Surveyed

 17

 

 

Sheets not Surveyed

 24

 

 

Total Sheets in Series

279

 

 

(#)

Indicative Bathymetric Survey Report available (courtesy Charlie Watson)

 

 

 

Annexure E

 

Bathymetric Map Sheets - PUBLICATION STATUS

 

 

Publication Summary

Published Maps

227

Compiled but Not Published

11

Unpublished

41

 

 

Total Sheets in Series

279

                                                                                                      

 

 

 

Annexure F

 

 

 

 

Annexure G

 

DIVISION OF NATIONAL MAPPING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURE AND PROGRESS ON BATHYMETRIC PROGRAM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(IN JUNE 1970 DOLLARS)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Financial

Year

 

FY Mean

ABS-CP Index

Base 100

At Dec 1980

FY Mean

Base 100

at Jun 1970

Bathymetric

Program

Cost for FY

Program

Cost in

1970 Dollars

Cumulative

Bathymetric

Program

Cost

Cumulative

Bathymetric

Program

Cost 1970 $

Line Miles

Surveyed

in FY

Cumulative

Line Miles

Surveyed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1970-71

36.5

103.1

$20,400

$19,800

$20,400

$19,800

 

 

 

 

1971-72

39.0

110.2

$428,600

$388,900

$449,000

$408,700

8000

8000

 

 

1972-73

41.3

116.7

$444,300

$380,700

$893,300

$789,400

11600

19600

 

 

1973-74

46.7

131.9

$988,000

$749,100

$1,881,300

$1,538,500

20120

39720

 

 

1974-75

54.5

154.0

$1,161,000

$753,900

$3,042,300

$2,292,400

17305

57025

 

 

1975-76

61.5

173.7

$1,490,700

$858,200

$4,533,000

$3,150,600

25900

82925

 

 

1976-77

70.0

197.7

$1,200,000

$607,000

$5,733,000

$3,757,600

29030

111955

 

 

1977-78

76.7

216.7

$1,752,100

$808,500

$7,485,100

$4,566,100

26560

138515

 

 

1978-79

83.0

234.5

$1,301,800

$555,100

$8,786,900

$5,121,200

21780

160295

 

 

1979-80

91.4

258.2

$1,309,400

$507,100

$10,096,300

$5,628,300

11790

172085

 

 

1980-81

100.0

282.5

$2,730,300

$966,500

$12,826,600

$6,594,800

26970

199055

 

 

1981-82

110.4

311.9

$3,040,100

$974,700

$15,866,700

$7,569,500

21450

220505

 

 

1982-83

123.1

347.7

$2,870,800

$825,700

$18,737,500

$8,395,200

31608

252113

 

 

1983-84

131.6

371.8

$2,731,800

$734,700

$21,469,300

$9,129,900

26160

278273

 

 

1984-85

137.2

387.6

$3,033,900

$782,700

$24,503,200

$9,912,600

26824

305097

 

 

1985-86

148.7

420.1

$3,183,100

$757,700

$27,686,300

$10,670,300

29750

334847

 

 

1986-87

162.6

459.3

$3,582,800

$780,100

$31,269,100

$11,450,400

32534

367381

 

 

1987-88

174.5

493.8

$3,129,689

$633,800

$34,398,789

$12,084,200

27653

395034

 

 

1988-89

187.3

528.2

$3,027,559

$573,200

$37,426,348

$12,657,400

16462

411496

 

 

1989-90

202.3

572.5

$471,021

$82,300

$37,897,369

$12,739,700

1975

413471